Our 8th quarter ITT Technical Institute graduation project

The ZANG 2000 Dual head laser beam projector device.

This was the final project while attending ITT Tech. after 2 years of attending. There were many other projects that were done but this is the only one that will be posted here on the web. This page may take a few moments to load.

The Zang 2K Project Team

[Starting from far left and clockwise]

Jesse Kolstad, Trevor Carnahan, David Harr, Melody Sprinkel and Jamie Garza


Project manager: David Harr
Function generator: David Harr, Trevor Carnahan
Microprocessor designer: Jesse Kolstad
Random quadurature: Melody Sprinkel
Power supply: Jamie Garza, Trevor Carnahan
Hardware/laser integration: David Harr
Graphic illustrators & web heads: Trevor Carnahan, David Harr
Troubleshooting: everyone!

Premis and Forward


The purpose of this project is to visually communicate the effects that frequencies have with each other. By expressing these frequencies into mirrors and magnets that have a laser beam shining across creates a visual representation of that electronics is about; math in motion. We wanted to have as much control of the math and add a little eye candy. 


The most common outputs are Lissajous in nature. A harmonic SIN wave 'jous of equal frequencies produce a perfect circle. When you start multiplying and dividing frequencies on either of the two axies, bends and twists occur. Strange patterns evolve as various attributes to the respective wave shapes are altered. 


Many times these changes seemingly create 3 dimensional images. Streching it over the time it takes for the image to be produced one may say that creates a Z, or time, axis as well. These 'wireframe' images are mathematical in nature so it may qualify as being Fractillian in nature. This is speculated becuase of the presence of 'knots' in the overall image. A 'knot' is a point or area in which the most mathematical changes happen. Or it could be defined as a stationary point or area where a visual radiance is sourced from. 


We accomplish this by using an ac signal (a frequency) controlling the horizontal and vertical sweep of a pair of magnetic salvos. These salvos (also called scanners or x/y plotters) are equiped with mirrors that move with the corrosponding frequency (or audio) signal. Projecting a laser beam into the mirrors creates Lissajous and Quaderature patterns across the room and onto the wall. 


Any frequency sourse can be used to drive these mirror sets, including audio. Interesting patterns can be generated with music controlling both axies. How about a steady frequency controlling horizontal movement and audio for the vertical?  It can be done with this device. 

[Note from pm:  There is more than one typo herein.]

Circuit Design


Two seperate laser emmiting armatures were constructed. Each with it's own pair of frequency generators that controlled each axis. Each armature shared a different type of salvo design. The smaller of the two used an electromagnetic style salvo. They have their own +12, ground and input leads. 


The main laser uses a permanent magnet type salvo that works just like a speaker coil, only the magnet is on it's side and the coil pivots on an axis. Then a signal is applied to either of these salvos, a 'wobble' occures with the mirrors and the projected beam.


Enough of this blurb, read on... =) 

The Primary Laser


First off, I'm only going to give half the story as it pertains to one of the two axisies. If you get this half to work for one waveshape, just build a copy for the other axis. It's that simple... anyway, here's the flow-chart... 



An XR-8038 precision frequency generator is used because of it's simple hookup and output lines. These IC's are a straight up and hassle-free. We wanted as much control of the waveshapes as possible. We can adjust the frequency, duty cycle, and wave shape symetry to SIN, Triangle and Square wave outputs. Some adjustments are more prevelant with various shapes and others may have no effect (this is normal).


Here's the schematic...


To calculate the freq. range desited do not use the standard 1/(2piRC)! Use the formula 0.15/(RC) instead. Potentiometers come in standard ranges, so pick your upper frequency roll-off point and calculate C. The R of the calculation is across pins 4 and 5. To obtain our duty cycle, a 5k Pot was placed across pins 4 and 5 so that the center tap connects to I think a 1M pot. This acts as a voltage divider causing a voltage unballance between 4 and 5. 


The larger pot that controls frequency is connected as a voltage divider. One pin and the center tap going to Vcc +12v and the last pin going the the duty cycle center tap. If you need a fine tuner, add a smaller pot of about 50K ohms. If you do, don't forget to recalculate your value of C. 


• Pin 10 is C to ground 
• Pin 6 is to +Vcc 12v 
• Pins 7 and 8 are jumped. May be able to produce a modulated output frequency but the spec. sheet is vague about it's usage. 


To get wave shape symetry, two 100k ohm pots are used. They are center tapped and voltage divided between +Vcc 12v and Ground. These center taps go to the input pins 1 and 12 respectivly. 


The XR-8038 can produce 3 individual outputs at the same time.


• Pin 2 is output SIN 
• Pin 3 is output Triangle 
• Pin 9 is output Square. [Note: You must install a current limiting resistor from pin 9 to +Vcc 12v. @ about 2k ohms]


These outputs go to a selector switch where the common lead goes to a 741 op-amp to drive the respective salvo axis. Hookup for this amp is simple and it contains a gain of 10 which is calculated by the ratio of Rf/Ri. You may need to install a coupling cap in series with your pre-amped signal to Ri. Anyway, here's the pinout for this 8 lead op-amp. 


• Pin 7 +Vcc 12v 
• Pin 4 -Vcc -12v 
• Pin 2 inverting input resistor [Ri] (about 5k ohm) 
• Pin 6 to Pin 2 feedback resistor [Rf] (about 50k ohm) 
• Pin 6 amplified output 
• Pin 3 non-inverting resistor to ground 
• Pin 1 no connect 
• Pin 5 no connect 

With everything hooked up, you can check the output with an o'scope. You should be able to do the following... 

  1. 1. Adjust frequency from approx <25Hz to about 500+ Hz with 2 pots (course and fine).
  2. 2. Adjust duty cycle with 1 pot.
  3. 3. Adjust wave shape symetry with 2 pots.
  4. 4. Amplification from the selected wave and the 741 output pin 6.
  5. 5. Select the output wave signal with a multi selector switch. 


You can have an audio signal applied to the salvo amps. I reccommend using an RCA connection with a fixed peak-top-peak limit. This may require a preamp whose output goes to the axis selector switch. This will ease the selection of what axis signal is applied to the respective salvo. 

You could use a preamped signal like for headphones from a cd player. You should pay attention to the high end volume output level. You nay need to rethink your preamp stage for circuit protection, the salvos can only handle so much voltage. Refurbished salvo's are cheaper and they rarely come with a spec. sheet. Start with low gain and slowly work up. 


If everything here works, build an identical circuit for the other axial input to the salvo. With this, you can select a different input signal/shape for each axis. Adjusting the pots gives some interesting results. 


The main salvo is driven by a 15 mW Helium-Neon (HeNe) class IIIB laser. 


The Secondary laser


The premis is the same for this armature. Only we didn't need the extreem control like with the main laser. We went to only adjust the frequency of SIN and select an allternate sound input. This also having the option of turning off an axis. Again this is described for a single axis. This circuit uses the XR-2206 Monolithic Function Generator. The rundown will be quick because you should derrive the essentials from the XR-8038 description. Here, goes. 


• Pin 1 Ground 
• Pin 2 SIN output 
• Pin 3 no connect 
• Pin 4 +Vcc 12v 
• Pin 5 Timing Cap [C] to Pin 6 
• Pin 6 Other end of Timing Cap from Pin 5 
• Pin 7 Timing Resistor [R] 
• Pin 8 no connect 
• Pin 9 no connect 
• Pin 10 no connect 
• Pin 11 no connect 
• Pin 12 Ground 
• Pin 13 200 Ohm to Pin 14 
• Pin 14 Other end of 200 Ohm from Pin 13 
• Pin 15 no connect 
• Pin 16 no connect 

Here's the schematic...

And here's the flow-chart...


To calculate the freq. range desited do not use the standard 1/(2piRC)! Use the formula 1/(RC) instead. The value of pi is compensated for w/in the IC and you can superimpose again to calculate C. If you use a 500k Ohm pot for R, your RC frequency should be relativly the same as the XR-8038. We used a .15microF for all 4 function generators. The spec. sheet had examples of wiring the IC, but we found we could remove some of the components and the XR-2206 worked just as well for what was desired. 


The controls are as follows: 


  • • 2 frequency adjusters with Coarse and Fine adjustment 
  • • 1 three position ON/OFF/ON 'wave/off/audio' axial input switch dealie thing-a-ma-bob 

Again a 741 op-amp was used to boost the signal up for the mirror set. This salvo is driven by a generic laser pointer. 

The Micro Processor 

 by Jesse Kolstad


In order to get specific characters to display with the LASER, we need processor power. The processor that I used is a Motorola M68HC(7)05C8A. This is an 8bit, 8K PROM with 300 Bytes of RAM. The processors drive two different 8bit DACs for the X and Y coordinates. I used a TLO72BCP as an amplifier/offset null for the two DACs.



[Note from pm:  The schematic is crude, but did exceptionally well in beta testing.]

To display a character on the wall I must do a full x-y plot in a manner that can be traced linearly by an x-y mirror set with speed and inertia limitations. All this must be taken into consideration when programming. Since the mirrors are one hundred times slower than my processor, I must build in a settable delay that can be adjusted in real-time. 


[Click here to view a copy of the code Jesse wrote for this processor.]


[note from pm:  An additional circuit was constructed by Melody to accompany Jesse's processor.  She built am 8-bit analog to digital converter which plugged into PC0 to PC7.  With the use of a potentiometer, the processor speed could be adjusted on the fly.  No schematics are available at this time.]


The Random Quadrature Generator 

by Melody Sprinkel:


The Psuedo Random Sequencer is one of the many combinations of Shift Register Feedback use.  It can be of maximal length or one less then 2 to the nth -1.  In our application, it is 2to the 4th -1 for 15.  This is also known as a binary counter.  The numbers appear in apparently random order or they repeat every time the sequence clocks through 15 where the randomness is constant over one total cycle.  If Bits 3 &4 are both 0, or both 1, then a 1 is sent to the input of the first stage.  If either, ( not both ) is a 0 then a 0 goes to the input of the first stage.  This makes the numbers appear to be random.


To do this, I had to research to find a suitable circuit which I found at Supertroniks in the Digital cookbook.  Of course I had to integrate their idea to our needs by changing and adding my own ideas.  I then drew a schematic made from a combination of a D Flip-Flop counter circuit run through an exclusive-or into an inverter and through a DAC.


Then I needed a 555 timer to clock the FF's therefore found a need to calculate the components of the timer.  The calculations are as pollows...

The 555 timer frequency can be varied by changing timing components RA, RB, and C.


Freqmin/max = 1.44/(RA+2RB)C 
Frequency min = 1.44/(0+2(1K))(22uF) = 32.72Hz
Frequency Max = 1.44/(40k+2(1k))(22uF)=1.55Hz
Thus frequency can be varied from 32.72Hz to 1.55Hz.
The duty cycle =[(RA+RB)/(RA+2RB)]x100%
Min Duty Cycle = [(0+1k)/(0+2(1k))]x100%=50%
Max Duty Cycle =[(40k+1k)/(40k+2(1k))]x100%=97.61

The repeat time is 1/15th of the clock frequency and can be varied from 1/15 of 32.72Hz=2.1813 seconds to 1/15th of 1.55hz=103ms

The schematic below is the final design.



After building the timer, I proceeded to wire the Flip-flops and then the DAC.  The DAC IC proved to be too complex for our needs, so upon researching, replaced the chip with a simple discrete DAC made with a summing amplifier. Once that was complete, more testing was in order.  Which found the circuit working well.  The schematics were then revised, and the circuit went to David for further testing.  It worked very well.  We only needed to add one thing, a variable pot to the inverting input of the op-amp for a zero reference point. This worked also and centered the laser in the middle of the x and y coordinates.


[note from pm:  way to go melody!  Great work!]

The Power Supply 

by Jamie Garza:


For out project we need a steady +12V (DC), -12V (DC), and a +5V (DC) output power supply. We built a power supply to complement the voltage requirements needed for the all the circuits in this project. By doing this we are not limited to an outside source for power. The only thing that we will need is an outlet.


From the wall outlet, the cord is connected to the transformer. There is a 1A protect fuse connected to line in. 0V line out of the transformer is connected to ground. From the transformers 14.5V (AC) line out is connected to the input to the 9030 IC (Bridge Rectifier), which rectifies the AC voltage to DC voltage. The voltage coming out of the rectifier is approximately 18.25V (DC). From the negative and positive outputs of the 9030IC are connected to two 10,000microF capacitors. 


From the positive end of one of the 10,000microF capacitors connected to the input of the 7812CT IC (+12V Regulator). The 7812CT IC changes the +18.25V(DC) input to a +12V (DC) output. The output is connected to the +12V selection of the terminal block and to the positive end of one of the 10microF capacitor. The negative end of the 10(F capacitor is connected to ground. From the output of the 7812CT IC also goes into the input of the 7805CT IC (+5V Regulator). The 7812CT IC changes the +12V (DC) input to a +5V (DC) output. The output of the 7805CT IC is connected to the +5V selection of the terminal block and also connected to the positive end of the third 10(F capacitor. From the negative end of the 10(F capacitor is connected to ground. The actual output measurement from the 7812CT IC is +12.07V (DC) and from the 7805CT IC is +4.97V (DC).


From the negative end of the other 10,000microF capacitors is connected to the input of the 7912CT IC (-12V Regulator). The 7912CT IC changes the -18.25V (DC) input to a -12V (DC) output. From the output the 7912CT IC is connected to the -12V selection of the terminal block and is also connected to the negative end of a 10(F capacitor. The positive end of the capacitor is connected to ground. Each IC has it's own ground connection which is connected to ground. The actual measurement from the IC is -12.08V (DC).



All of these components are connected onto a simple breadboard. The components and placed on one side of the breadboard and connected on the other side of the breadboard by using wires and soldering the connections.

Hardware Design



It is only proper for a stand alone device to be self contained somehow. Alternatives that could have been used would be wood, plexiglass or something like that. Well, the best tool for constructional ideas are Legos. Things can be built, taken apart and just plain changed with minimal fuss. Some butchering of poor lego pieces was necessary for a proper fit. Their sacrifice is well noted. 



Both salvo sets are enclosed with a laser input cavity and an output red Elfin-Decoder filter. This red filter acted as a pass-thru of the red laser light and to keep foreign stuffs out!  The Main laser has the recent addition of an external mirror positioning array. Two mirrors, one 45 degree fixed and the other pivotable on 2 axies to position the output image on the wall. 



Behind the 2 laser armatures is a protoboard circuit holding area. Four project boards can be fitted here with a dual 2x stack config. Two are for both sets of function generators, one for the random quaderature generator and another for the micro processor control board. 



On the side facing away from the armatures is the control panel. This is where the 14 pots and 6 switches are mounted for easy control. It too is made of Lego's. Underneath the panel is a wire harness board and maybe room for another protoboard. 


[note from pm:  The final version of the Z2K had an additional protoboard installed that was used to mount an 8 bit analog to digital converter.  With the turn of a pot, you could set the speed at which the processor controlled portion of the project would calculate the x/y coords to the mirror set.  The pot was mounted where the 'expansion space' is indicated in the above illustration.  This pot can be seen in the first illustration in this section.]


The Dual Lasers

There wasn't much troubleshooting with these circuits.  Some common mistakes throughout the course of the project was making sure the power supply was connected correctly.


One problem though was making all the primary signal generators have the same output (including the Audio In amplifiers).  Through some experimentation with the gain values of the op-amps, a reasonable comprimise was obtained.


The biggest concern was with the mirrors, no spec sheets were available.  So, to overcome this, a very low gain was established.  After that was done, the gain was slowly increased to an acceptable level.


Processor Controlled


Some trouble I ran into was that the load that the mirrors present is very reactive.  So getting a specific coordinate was nearly impossible.  The fix for this was adding some series resistance.  Only needed about 100 ohms to settle things down.


The approach that I took on the final code structure was to only feed in the quardinates the were at tle ends of individual lines.  So one line acrost the screen is only to coordinated and the processor does the math for me to generate all the points in beetween.  This saved alot of code space and programming effort by reducing the code necessary to draw an object on the screen by about 10 to 1. ahhhhh I love processors.


Random Generator


There were a few problems with calculating the timer components, but not too bad, just persistence proved to work best.  The next step was to build a seven-segment display [for prelimary testing] so that one could see that the counters were working properly, and they were!  We tried a DAC, but it was too complex for the needs of the circuit.


Some research was in order, where one can find a simple DAC made from an op-amp and 4 resistors would do the trick. Thus removing the DAC IC and inserting the discrete DAC worked great! 


Upon testing the circuit with the Zang-2000 we found it worked, but was off center. Upon more research one can make a zero reference point with Pots. to the inverting input of the op-amp that centers the laser. There were no more problems encountered after that. 


Another problem encountered was if the maximum count or all 1's are reached there will be a hang-up.   This can be remedied by clearing the counter or placing a zero anywhere in the sequence.


[note from pm:  A reset switch has been added to remedy this anomoly upon final installation into the unit.]


Power Supply


There were no real problems constructing the circuit. The output voltage measurements were not perfect but meets all of the voltage requirements of all circuits in this project. There is less than a 5% error rate in this circuit, which can be caused by many different things. The only problem with my design is that all of the connections are on the bottom of a breadboard and all the wires and connections are exposed.




How do you troubleshoot hardware? The biggest mountain was just how big to make the enclosure for this project.  It started out smaller (about halv of the final size) and increased gradually with spacial and feature demands.  That's the best things about lego's, it's relativly easy to restructure when necessary.


There were some instances where some lego's had to modified.  They include the control switche mounting board, the power switches, and the main laser armature eyelet.  Albiet tedious, it all came together nicely.

Eye Candy


To turn this thing on, flip both the main power and the laser power switches on.  Oh yea, NEVER look directly into the beam of a laser.  Many are low powered, but you risk retinal laser radiation. 

Primary Laser:


Begin by selecting what type of input you desire per each axis.  You can choose from a SIN wave, Triangle wave, Square wave, audio or the internal auxiliary sources.  Selecting AUX you can use a pseudo random quaderature generator or the internal ROM programs.



Let's start with the main usage of this device, the production of Lissajous patterns.  Select both the X and Y axies to a SIN, Triangle or Square wave output.  The 2 upper far left knobs control the frequency of the chosen wave shape (left is coarse and the right if fine tuning). 


The next knob to the right of the above adjusts the duty cycle of the chosen wave. and the remaining knobs just to the left of the output selector switch control wave shape symmetry.  The duty cycle and wave symmetry. knobs zero out when pointed upwards.  This allows for positive and negative control.


You will notice that for certain wave shapes, some knobs have no effect.  This is normal.


To get an understanding of what you are controlling, turn both axies to max and observe the small dot pattern.  This is due to the frequency being too high for the mirror salvos.  Slowly reduce the frequency of each axis until you reach the peak projected signal.  Fine tune the frequencies correctly and you should see a rotating circle.


A perfect stationary circle represents the equal vector summation of both frequencies.  By adjusting the frequencies, you can obtain patterns like the square illustrated here.



By reducing one of the frequencies, you will see the circle bend and twist.  When these patterns are tuned to be stationary, you are seeing frequency division/multiplication at resonant intervals.  From there, play with the duty cycle and wave symmetry. controls to experience many unique patterns and shapes.



Since these patterns are actually being produced by a voltage represented by a number, one could deduct a fractiallian geometry from the Lissajous patterns.  As the patterns get more and more complicated, the development of knots and strings occurs.  A knot could be described as an area w/in the calculated image that is experiencing the most calculations per square area.  Tightly woven streaks that seem to spiral in a stationary point would be considered a knot.  Emanating from these knots are the strings.  Strings are simply the nature of the generated lines to shoot into (or out of) a knot.




You can select each axis to display an output generated by an external audio source, hence a CD player.  Plug the provided RCA connectors to the left and right channel of a non amplified audio signal.  While it is possible to adapt it to a headphone jack to attain higher gain, this is not recommended for this prototype.



The mirror sets seem to work best with lower frequencies.  The calculated freq.max is about 300Hz.  Anything above that is lost because the mirrors cannot respond fast enough to those frequencies.


The AUX switch:


Internally there are two more circuits that add functionally and flair to this project.


The first is the random quad. generator.  Setting the switches to the appropriate settings will initiate this already free running generator.  What it does is randomly pick X and Y coordinate voltages to control the laser.  An erratic, seemingly unorganized cluster of random lines clutter your laser viewing area.  You can choose independently which axis you would like this function on.


The second is the programmed ROM software.  When selected to these, pre-programmed X and Y coords are sent to the mirrors.  These coords represent a specific pattern.  The final program sequencially sent the ITT logo, the word "Zang," some star patterns, a smiley face and the word "BYE" to the Main Laser mirror salvo.  Time permitting, further development would have included selectable patterns.


Secondary Laser:


This laser control is more simpler in design.  You options are limited to adjusting the X and Y SIN frequencies, selecting the audio as a source and turning off the respective axis all together.  Turning on this smaller laser is accomplished by pressing the protruding Lego buttons to the left of the secondary salvo housing.  The right button turns on a steady beam while the left one flashes the beam at a frequency not calculated.



As for this prototype, it is necessary to place a semi-heavy object to keep the steady beam on so your hands are free.  We used a laser pen for expense purposes.  A better design is with one powerful laser and a beam splitter.  The laser pen's output is substantially dimmer relative to the HeNe used in the Main laser.



The same theory applies to this salvo as it did to the Main laser.  Match frequencies to obtain resonant Lissajous patterns.  You will notice however that these mirror sets exhibit different visual output characteristics.  The development of knots is orientated differently.  Different eye candy. =)

Some Conclusions


So, as far as a conclusion goes, we need only keep it simple so this one's short and to the point. This device can serve two purposes simultaneously.  The first is from an educational standpoint...


• Visually teaches how frequencies interact with each other.
• See how changes in phase relationships make for unique mathematical geometry.
• How slight changes in wave shape symmetry. can affect a signal.
• And much, much more!...


But, to be honest, it's a laser light show that can be lots of fun too. From this standpoint you can...


• Entertain friends and family!
• Be your own laser show director!
• Create a personal high tech ambiance in your domicile!
• And much, much more!...


But on a more serious note, this project has utilized every quarter taken here at ITT Technical Institute.  This device includes Analog, Digital logic, microprocessing, computer skills and laser communication.  Lasers can be used as an artistic form of communicating ideas.  And when Science meets the atrs, really fun things can happen.  And all this brings us a better understanding of the world we live in.

-Project Manager


Melody Sprinkel:


"We wanted to show some of the various applications of the laser by using a random number generator to generate various voltages for the x and Y coordinates of the Zang 2000.  After much research, I found what I needed and successfully completed the circuit. One can conclude that research plays a large factor in circuit design as well as patience and persistence.  As you can see, it pays off, and the reward is seeing it work.


The circuit does exactly what it was built to do.  It generates random voltages for the x and y coordinates, which can be verified by watching the laser movement.


This created a great way to wrap up our final quarter here as well as the opportunity to learn what it takes to be a part of a successful team.  Teamwork is important in the field also, where I will apply much of what I have learned here. It was certainly an honor to be part of this team."


-Circuit Designer

Web info and a link

Trevor Carnahan:


The web page for the Zang 2000 was initially created in Macromedia Dreamweaver (v2.0).  The page implements standard iso html (hypertext markup language).  It also implements cascading style sheets for the formatting of the text.  The majority of the photo's in the Zang 2000 site were taken with a Kodak DC260 digital camera, at resolutions of up to 1024x768.  This was ample for our purposes here in the site.


Had we had more time to develop this page, we would have made it a little more interesting with more Lego shots and some pretty fancy dhtml (dynamic html).


-Web Page Designer

Meredith Instruments, Inc.
A good outlet for laser related products.
They sell color and diode lasers, optics, mirrors and x/y plotters.

Reference Material

"Modern Electronic Communication" Edition 6

Michael Fairbanks  (c) 1999 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
ISBN: 0-13-010995-9
"Sams by Don Lancaster (TTL Cookbook)"
1974 By Sams  ISBN# 0-672-21035-5
Lab Manual: 
"Troubleshooting and Design (Digital Systems) Principles and Applications" 7th edition
Frank J. Ambrosio, Jim C. Deloach, Gregory L. Moss
Ronald J. Tocci and Neal S. Widmer (c) 1998 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
ISBN# 0-13-797838-3
"Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits:  Theory and Applications"
By Denton J. Dailey (c) 1989 Glencoe/McGraw and Hill
ISBN# 0-07-039931-X
"Electronic Principles" 5th edition
Albert Paul Malvino. (c) 1993 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
ISBN# 0-02-800845-6
"Modern Electronic Communicaiton 6th Edition"
Gary M. Miller
ISBN# 0-13-012429-X

Parts List

Primary Laser

1 Helium Neon (HeNe) .15mW lazer
1 x/y scanner/plotter salvo mirror set.  (Permanent magnet design)
2 8038 precision waveform generator IC's
2 LM741 op-amps
2 Dual 5 pos. rotary switches
2 Dual 4 pos. rotary switches
6 100k Ohm potentiometers
2 1M Ohm pots.
2 50k Ohm pots.
2 3k Ohms
2 10k Ohms
2 2.9k Ohms
2 .15micro Farad caps.

Secondary Laser

1 Radio Shack laser pen
1 X/Y scanner/plotter salve mirror set.  (Electro-magnet design)
2 2206 monolithic function generator IC's
2 LM741 op-amps
2 ON/OFF/ON single pole flip switches
2 1M Ohm pots.
4 50k Ohm pots
2 10k Ohms
2 2.2k Ohms
2 1.5k Ohms
2 .15micro Farad caps.
2 .1 micro Farad caps.


1 RCA stereo patch cord approx. 4' in length.
2 LM741 op-amps
2 20k Ohms
2 2.9k Ohms

Random Generator

3 555 timer IC's
4 7474 Dual DFF
2 Quad EX-OR
2 7404 quad HEX inverters 
2 741LMC Op-amps
1 0804DAC, 8bit
2 Green LED's
3 0.01microFarad caps.
3 22nanoFarad caps.
2 5k Ohm Pots.
3 10k Ohm Pots.
3 50k Ohm Pots.
4 1k Ohm resistors
2 1.5k Ohm resistors
2 100 Ohm resistors
2 2k Ohm resistors
2 4k Ohm resistors
2 8k Ohm resistors

Processor Controlled

1  MC68HC705C8A Processor chip
2  8080 Digital to Analog converters
1  8Mhz Xtal
1  100k Ohm Pot
1  25k Ohm pot
1  1M Ohm
4  4.7k Ohm
2  1k Ohm
2  27 Ohm
2  100 Ohm
1  2microFarad caps.
1 .1microFarad caps.

Power Supply

1  Centertapped 1A/14.5v (AC) Transformer
2  10,000microF Capacitors
3  10microF Capacitors
1  9030 IC (Bridge Rectifier)
1  7805CT IC (+5V Regulator)
1  7812CT IC (+12V Regulator)
1  7912CT IC (-12V Regulator)
1  1A/250v Fuse (Fast Blow)
1  Terminal Block
1  Breadboard

Lego's, and a crapload of 'em. Lots parts from the entire Star Wars Lego series way too numerous to be detailed here. 

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